Mimicry – Memorization method was developed firstly for military personnel during the Second World War. This method was successful because of high motivation, intensive practice, small classes and good models. Some basic sentences are memorized by imitation. When the basic sentences have been over-learned, the students can practice the dialogue. Then they can vary the dialogues within the material he ha already learned. Finally, the  students act out the dialogue in front of the students.

This method is not only used for the purpose of training the students how to pronounce the words, phrases and statement correctly, but also to control the language classes. The students are expected to focus their attentions to the lessons. This method can be used to mim – mem the dialogues for Elementary School students, Junior High School Students.

Sample of Mim – Mem: The teacher gives a dialog. Students repeat after the teacher.

Teacher : Are you Malaysian? (Ss listen and repeat)
Students : Are you Malaysian?

T : No, I am not. I am from Indonesia.
Ss : No, I am not. I am from Indonesia.

T : Are you………………. ( T just says the first word of the sentence)
Ss : Are you Malaysian?

T : No, …………………….. (T just says the first word of the sentence)
Ss : No, I am not. i am from Indonesia


When the teacher has given the 5th or 6th sentence and students have repeated the 5th and 6th sentences. Teacher can repeat the whole 5 or 6 sentences from the 3rd or 4th sentence.


Scaffolding is a method that helps teachers provide students with individualized instruction. While engaged in scaffolding, teachers become facilitators of learning in an instructional dialogue based on flexibility. Scaffolding fosters student academic achievement, self-esteem, and social skills.

With scaffolding, a teacher concentrates on developing student competencies. In the classroom, the teacher explains, step-by-step, how a decision was made or a conclusion reached. This explanation often takes the form of group discussion. The discussion is a stream-of-consciousness interaction with students and teacher. Later, the instructor shifts from teacher to coach as the students take over the particular skill. The performance of the student is coached until the mastery of the skill develops. At this stage, the student role resembles that of the apprentice, working under the guidance of the instructor. Gradually, the instructor reduces support, a process known as fading. Ultimately, support is no longer needed. Scaffolding is a highly individualized approach to teaching: “Almost all classroom teachers believe that instructional approaches which are attentive to the differences among individual learners will be superior to those schemes which are oblivious of such differences” (Popham and Baker, 1973, p. 27).

The objective of scaffolding is to give the student just enough support to help him or her achieve their current goal. Too much support can be stifling which scaffolding, students can learn at their own pace. The teacher is coach, facilitator, and tutor. After demonstrating and modeling a task to students, the teacher assigns the tasks, and offers feedback where necessary. Whereas when first taught, a skill might be meaningless to a student, by the time he or she has progressed through the integration of the skill in complex problems and in interaction with teachers and fellow students, an interpersonal connection results that enhances learning. Scaffolding demands much from a teacher, and the incorporation of computers into the process can ease the instructional burden. As one teacher puts it, “The computer is an infinitely malleable tool, and it has the potential to enable us to teach things we were never able to teach before . . . ” (Bollentin, 1998, p. 52). Thus many modern examples of scaffolding are often found in computerized instruction.

Scaffolding techniques should be considered fundamental to good, solid teaching for all students, not just those with learning disabilities or second language learners. In order for learning to progress, scaffolds should be gradually removed as instruction continues, so that students will eventually be able to demonstrate comprehension independently.

Scaffolding instruction includes a wide variety of strategies, including:

  • activating prior knowledge
  • offering a motivational context to pique student interest or curiosity in the subject at hand
  • breaking a complex task into easier, more “doable” steps to facilitate student achievement
  • showing students an example of the desired outcome before they complete the task
  • using verbal cues to prompt student answers
  • teaching students chants or mnemonic devices to ease memorization of key facts or procedures
  • facilitating student engagement and participation
  • teaching key vocabulary terms before reading
  • Suggesting possible strategies for the students to use during independent practice
  • modeling an activity for the students before they are asked to complete the same or similar activity


One of the primary benefits of scaffolding instruction is that it engages the learner.  The learner does not passively listen to information presented instead through teacher prompting the learner builds on prior knowledge and forms new knowledge.  In working with students who have low self-esteem and learning disabilities, it provides an opportunity to give positive feedback to the students by saying things like “…look what you have just figured out!”  This gives them more of a can do versus a “this is too hard” attitude.  This leads into another advantage of scaffolding in that if done properly, scaffolding instruction motivates the student so that they want to learn.

Another benefit of this type of instruction is that it can minimize the level of frustration of the learner.  This is extremely important with many special needs students, who can become frustrated very easily then shut down and refuse to participate in further learning during that particular setting.

Scaffold instruction is individualized so it can benefit each learner.  However, this is also the biggest disadvantage for the teacher since developing the supports and scaffolded lessons to meet the needs of each individual would be extremely time-consuming.  Implementation of individualized scaffolds in a classroom with a large number of students would be challenging.  Another disadvantage is that unless properly trained, a teacher may not properly implement scaffolding instruction and therefore not see the full effect.  Scaffolding also requires that the teacher give up some of the control and allow the students to make errors.  This may be difficult for teachers to do.  Finally the teachers’ manuals and curriculum guides that I have been exposed to do not include examples of scaffolds or outlines of scaffolding methods that would be appropriate for the specific lesson content.  Although there are some drawbacks to the use of scaffolding as a teaching strategy the positive impact it can have on students’ learning and development is far more important.